Types of Consumer Behavior
4 Types of Consumer Behavior
A consumer’s buying decision depends on the type of products that they need to buy. The behavior of a consumer while buying a coffee is a lot different from while buying a car.
Based on observations, it is clear that purchases that are more complex and expensive involve higher deliberation and many more participants.
Consumer buying behavior is determined by the level of involvement that a consumer shows in a purchase decision. The involvement allows customers to ensure that this product is exactly what they want or do not want.
One of the participants of 102 CX Report, Todd Clark from L'Oréal, mentioned it explicitly - "I believe the first issue is getting the consumer to try the product/s first. The second would be getting the consumer to understand the science of the product and why it is the best for their needs. Answering the "need" or "pain point" gets consumers to use/buy."
The amount of risk involved in a purchase also determines the buying behavior. Higher priced goods tend to high a higher risk, thereby seeking higher involvement in buying decisions.
There are four types of consumer buying behavior:
- Complex buying behavior
- Dissonance-reducing buying behavior
- Habitual buying behavior
- Variety seeking behavior
1. Complex buying behavior
Complex buying behavior is encountered particularly when consumers are buying an expensive product. In this infrequent transaction, consumers are highly involved in the purchase decision. Consumers will research thoroughly before committing to invest.
Consumer behaves very differently when buying an expensive product or a product that is unfamiliar to them. When the risk of buying a product is very high, a consumer consults friends, family, and experts before making the decision.
For example, when a consumer is buying a car for the first time, it’s a big decision as it involves high economic risk. There is a lot of thought on how it looks, how his friends and family will react, how will his social status change after buying the car, and so on.
In complex buying behavior, the buyer will pass through a learning process. He will first develop beliefs about the product, then attitudes, and then make a thoughtful purchase choice.
For complex buying behavior customers, marketers should have a deep understanding of the products. It is expected that they help the consumer to understand their product. It is important to create an advertising message in a way that influences the buyer’s beliefs and attitudes.
2. Dissonance-reducing buying behavior
In dissonance-reducing buying behavior, consumer involvement is very high. This might be due to high prices and infrequent purchases. In addition, there is low availability of choices with fewer significant differences among brands. In this type, a consumer buys a product that is easily available.
Consumers will be forced to buy goods that do not have too many choices and therefore consumers will be left with limited decision making. Based on the products available, time limitations, or budget limitations, consumers buy certain products without a lot of research.
For example, a consumer who is looking for a new collapsible table that can be taken for camping quickly decides on the product based on a few brands available. The main criteria here will be the use and the feature of the collapsible table and the budget available to him.
Marketers should run after-sale service camps that deliver focused messaging. These campaigns should aim to support consumers and convince them to continue with the choice of their brand. These marketing campaigns should focus on building repeat purchases and referrals by offering discounts and incentives.
3. Habitual buying behavior
Habitual Buying Behavior is depicted when a consumer has low involvement in a purchase decision. In this case, the consumer is perceiving only a few significant differences between brands.
When consumers are buying products that they use for their daily routine, they do not put a lot of thought. They either buy their favorite brand or the one that they use regularly – or the one available in the store or the one that costs the least.
For example, when a consumer buys an energy drink, he tends to buy the flavor/taste that he likes without actually putting in a lot of research and time. Many products fit into this category. Products such as chocolates, cakes, juices, etc., all fit into this product category.
Consumers just go for it and buy it – there is no brand loyalty. Consumers do not research or need information regarding the purchase of such products.
Habitual buying behavior is influenced by radio, television, and print media. Moreover, consumers are buying based on brand familiarity. Hence marketers must use repetitive advertisements to build brand familiarity. Further to initiate product trial, marketers should use tactics like price drop promotions and sales promotions.
Marketers should attract consumers using visual symbols and imagery in their advertising. Consumers can easily remember visual advertisements and can associate with a brand.
4. Variety seeking buying behavior
In variety-seeking consumer behavior, consumer involvement is low. There are significant differences between brands. Here consumers often do a lot of brand switching. The cost of switching products is low, and hence consumers might want to try out new products just out of curiosity or boredom. Consumers here, generally buy different products not because of dissatisfaction but mainly with an urge to seek variety.
For example, a consumer likes to buy a cookie and choose a brand without putting much thought into it. Next time, the same consumer might choose a different brand out of a wish for a different taste. Brand switching occurs often and without intention.
Brands have to adopt different strategies for such types of consumer behavior. The market leader will persuade habitual buying behavior by influencing the shelf space. The shelf will display a large number of related but different product versions.
Marketers avoid out-of-stock conditions, sponsor frequent advertising, offer lower prices, discounts, deals, coupons, and free samples to attract consumers.
Consumer buying decisions are depended on consumer behavior. There are great differences in consumer behavior while buying a car versus buying chips. Marketers have to exercise careful judgment in marketing products to different kinds of consumer behavior.